Unified field theory
Henry L Lazarus

    When I graduated from New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in 1970 with a B. S. in Physics I was fascinated by the simplicity in some parts of Physics. Maxwell's equations, Einstein's special relativity theory, and of course, Newton's laws of motions. All of these had a few equations that made perfectly good sense. But nuclear physics was a mess. There are mesons, bosons, leptons, etc. It was a complicated confusion. Over the years after I was drafted out of Case Western Reserve University's graduate school and my life diverged from Physics, I kept pondering the problem with that and other issues.
    Recently I had an epiphany about matter that implies a different way of looking at the basic atom. If my idea is correct, than fusion should be much simpler than the method being tested today. In fact to fuse hydrogen atoms to deuterium atoms, all one should need is a tunable laser a controlled amount of hydrogen . I'll go into greater detail at the end of this web page
    I’ve been bothered by dark matter.  Basic physics according to Isaac Newton obeys two basic laws. Force = Mass times acceleration and Force = Mass of object one time mass of the second object times a constant called G divided by distance between the two objects squared. You can use these formula to determine the mass of an object that another mass is orbiting. The problem is that the mass of our Galaxy and other galaxies was too small by a factor of 8 times ten to the 11th solar masses. So Astrophysicists suggested a new type of matter -- dark matter that couldn't be seen by telescopes. In fact there are astrophysicists who think that 80% of the mass of the universe is this dark matter
Dark Matter and the gravitation field of Light

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity suggested that light rays were distorted  by large objects like the sun. Einstein thought that space was actually bent     One can create a gravitational lens using  our sun. The focal point at about 550 times the distance of the Earth to the Sun. It can even be put into an orbit called the Schwarzschild radius. Einstein assumed that light hit bent space and reacted as if it were effected by gravity. Suppose that Light has actual mass.Light acts like it has mass, even pushing on  solar sail  move a small spaceship. 
      Estimating the mass from the force acting on it, as with a gravitational lens is not possible. The same set of equations that prove that objects of different mass move at the same acceleration, imply that light would be bent the same no matter what the mass was.
 Light acts like it has mass.

    Light, or any Electromagnetic radiation, is generated by a moving electric field creating a moving magnetic field etc. This is defined by a series of equations invented by James Clerk Maxwell from a series of simpler laws that defined the relationship between opposite magnetic poles and opposing electric charges. They form the basis of classical electrodynamics and provide the theory for electric generators and electromagnets. They don't have a term for gravity fields, and don't provide any indication that light should have mass.
       Suppose that is wrong. Suppose that a moving electric field creates not only a magnetic field like in an electromagnet, but also a small gravitational field. Suppose that a moving magnetic field creates not only an electric field as in an electric generator, but also a small gravitational field. This extra gravitational field should be measurable  but very small.  Gravitation is a very weak force compared to electric and magnetic forces. But electric fields have positive and negative poles that cancel out the total force. Magnetic fields have North and South poles that also cancel out. Gravitation doesn't cancel out.

    Dark Matter is the Mass of Light

    If dark matter is the gravitational field generated by light, then we wouldn't see any effect of the mass of light in our solar system. Any light emitted by the sun is gone in a few hours. However when you consider our Milky Way galaxy, there is a different. It take light 100,000 years to cross the galaxy, and there are a 100,000 stars generating light. If you assume that the average photon takes 50,0000 years to cross, then using estimates of solar output, simple calculations suggest that photon mass in the same range as a hydrogen atom.
    Some astronomers have suggested that 80% of the mass of the universe is Dark Matter. If you consider all the light generated since the big bang, that makes perfect sense.
    Recently there have been studies relating black holes increase in mass from Dark Matter    Black holes collect light, lots of light, and thus the mass of the light adds to the mass of the black hole.

Gravitational fields  generated  from moving Magnetic and Electric fields.

    The typical view of an atom suggested by Bohr has a nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by energy fields of electrons Quantum Mechanics has complicated this view, but the basics remain  The model requires a strong force to hold the nucleus together and a week force to explain radioactive decay. There are also quarks, leptons, bosons, and gluons in various flavors and charms.    
    It is well known that light and sub-atomic particles are both a wave and a particle The typical experiment involves shining a beam at several slits. One either gets interference patterns ( like a wave) or lines (like a particle). We think of an atom as consisting of particles . High energy physics involves shooting particles like electrons and protons at atoms.    In Geneva the Large Hadron Collider has a seventeen mile track in which two proton beams collide with one another at near light speeds. The end result is a lot of energy and a large number of very short-lived particles.
Six Equations that define the Universe

    There are four equations that define all that we know about electric and magnetic forces. The four  Maxwell's equations can be broken into two parts. There are two that define how electric fields and magnetic fields interact, and two that define how each field, electric and magnetic, are defined by their separate poles and charges. Classic electrodynamics is a course I remember well, but the details are a bit foggy after forty plus years.
    Gravity, as defined by Newton can easily fit into the same format as Maxwell's equations, making the fifth equation.
    I'd like to propose a sixth equation that a gravitational field is generated by the movement of an electric field and by the movement of a magnetic field.  Electromagnetic energy, like light, would have a small gravitational field and would react to matter.
    Symmetry suggests that a moving gravitational field should create both a electric and a magnetic field, which would add terms to the Maxwell equations. However, because the force of gravity is significantly less than the forces of both Magnetic and Electric fields, it would take a very massive object, like a rotatiing galaxy, to generate measurable electromagnetic radiation

The Big Bang

   Many physicists agree that the universe began with a huge flux of energy. The sixth equation, as given above, would have eddies forming in the energy, spinning electromagnetic energy. The spinning energy would produce a gravitational field and would find stable forms. The smallest stable form is a hydrogen atom. Fusing hydrogen together makes other elements. It also creates more energy. Eventually the universe we know appears.
    Consider a single atom as envisioned by this theory. It would be around ball of spinning Electromagnetic-gravitational energy (EMG) .  Several of them present, with proper stimulus, can fuse to deuterium, four to Helium, etc.,.
    Thus if Hydrogen is a stable form of a spinning EMG, all other atoms are built from it. A Proton has the negative charge separated from the spinning EM field. A Neutron has the negative charge close to the positive charge. In an unstable atom, parts are breaking down, releasing electromagnetic  radiation, usually gamma rays,  and electrons and stripped hydrogen atoms.
    Crashing particles together in a Collider would destroy the stability and cause scattering energy, all generating gravitational fields and acting like particles.

        In 1905, Einstein published a paper that, based on previous work by others, that matter cannot exceed the speed of light. The equations that govern this suggest that when matter is moved at speeds close to light the matter grows, perceived time slows. And, of course, the energy of matter equals its mass times the speed of light squared. If matter is spinning electromagnetic energy, The movement of an electromagnetic field would create additional field strength, and in the case of a spinning electromagnetic field would increase these fields in the direction of movement, adding gravitational energy generated from that movement. Thus the effects of special relativity are easier to explain if matter is simply spinning EMG forces.  There's one difference. An atom that isn't moving would be very stable. An atom being elongated, and enlarged by movement would eventually become unstable. The mass would not increase exponentially as the atom approached the speed of light, it would collapse into gamma radiation long before its mass would be big enough to effect the universe.

Frequency of matter

    If matter is simply EMG radiation, then it would naturally have a frequency.  Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum might possibly represent the frequencies of each element.    Each element has an absorption point, that may indicate fusion occurring in the sun.

Experimental proofs

    I can conceive of three experiments that could prove this hypothesis. All of these experiments are doable with existing laboratory tools available.
    The first is simply to flood a vacuum with energy of the frequency of Hydrogen. If the theory is correct, then Hydrogen would actually appear. The main problem is to get enough hydrogen to actually be able to measure it.
    The second experiment would involve using a supercollider. Push a proton beam as close to the speed of light as the equipment allows. Hopefully the mass can be pushed fast enough to actually cause loss of stability of the EMG field and create gamma radiation.
    The third experiment is actually a way to cheap fusion. Consider a small space with enough hydrogen atoms to bounce off one another. Now add EMG in deuterium's frequency. Hydrogen Atoms instead of bouncing off one another might fuse into deuterium instead. No other frequency would work.
Cheap Fusion

    Fusion is what powers the sun. Hydrogen atoms are combined to make deuterium, deuterium into helium. Other elements are combined to create larger elements. All stars create the elements of our universe. They all start from Hydrogen. In fact the early universe was mostly hydrogen. When enough hydrogen atoms were drawn together by gravity, fusion started.
    There are two ways known today to create a fusion of Hydrogen  into Helium. The most obvious is the hydrogen bomb which uses an atomic bomb to create the equivalent of conditions inside a sun. The second is to use either magnetic or laser confinement of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium heated to a plasma. The idea is to create the conditions in the sun where fusion normally occurs A recent generator design suggests that for a few billion dollars it might be possible to get enough energy to justify it's cost.For decades such designs have been promised. It is very difficult and dangerous to create solar conditions on Earth.
    In the early universe of hydrogen, fusion started with easier conditions to work with. 
     My model suggests a way to create fusion in a simple way. consider the spinning EMG fields that make up each atom. Normally when they come close to one another they bounce off. However they are bathed in an em field of the fused product, then they would simply fall into the stable field of the new atom. . Thus If  the spinning electromagnetic field of several hydrogen atoms were bathed in electromagnetic radiation at the frequency of deuterium then they might simply fuse.
    Confine hydrogen in a container with a transparent opening. It should be hot enough, and compressed enough so that hydrogen atoms come into contact. The tunable laser should be set at the frequency of the Fraunhofer line of deuterium. Remember that the beam will diverge as it passes through the glass barrier, so will have to be modified. The beam should have a minimum power of the energy  deuterium from E=mc2 after it passes through the barrier. When conditions are right, there should be an obvious surge of energy from the container. Calculate the potential energy if all the hydrogen atoms were converted to deuterium and take precautions.    
     Email me at hlazar@henrylazarus.com and I'll cut and paste your comments below.