Six Equations that define the
There are four equations that define
all that we know about electric and magnetic forces. The
can be broken into two parts. There are two
that define how electric fields and magnetic fields interact,
and two that define how each field, electric and magnetic, are
defined by their separate poles and charges. Classic
electrodynamics is a course I remember well, but the details
are a bit foggy after forty plus years.
Gravity, as defined by Newton can easily
fit into the same format as Maxwell's equations, making the
I'd like to propose a sixth equation that a
gravitational field is generated by the movement of an
electric field and by the movement of a magnetic field.
Electromagnetic energy, like light, would have a small
gravitational field and would react to matter.
Symmetry suggests that a moving
gravitational field should create both a electric and a
magnetic field, which would add terms to the Maxwell
equations. However, because the force of gravity is
significantly less than the forces of both Magnetic and
Electric fields, it would take a very massive object, like a
rotatiing galaxy, to generate measurable electromagnetic
The Big Bang
agree that the universe began with a huge flux of
energy. The sixth equation, as given above, would have
eddies forming in the energy, spinning electromagnetic
energy. The spinning energy would produce a
field and would find
stable forms. The smallest stable form is a hydrogen atom.
Fusing hydrogen together makes other elements. It also
creates more energy. Eventually the universe we know
Consider a single atom as envisioned by
this theory. It would be around ball of spinning
Electromagnetic-gravitational energy (EMG) . Several
of them present, with proper stimulus, can fuse to
deuterium, four to Helium, etc.,.
Thus if Hydrogen is a stable form of a
spinning EMG, all other atoms are built from it. A Proton
has the negative charge separated from the spinning EM
field. A Neutron has the negative charge close to the
positive charge. In an unstable atom, parts are breaking
down, releasing electromagnetic radiation, usually
gamma rays, and electrons and stripped hydrogen
Crashing particles together in a
Collider would destroy the stability and cause scattering
energy, all generating gravitational fields and acting
In 1905, Einstein published a paper that, based on previous
work by others, that matter cannot exceed the speed of light.
The equations that govern this suggest that when matter is
moved at speeds close to light the matter grows, perceived
And, of course, the energy of matter
equals its mass times the speed of light squared. If matter is
spinning electromagnetic energy, The movement of an
electromagnetic field would create additional field strength,
and in the case of a spinning electromagnetic field would
increase these fields in the direction of movement, adding
gravitational energy generated from that movement. Thus the
effects of special relativity are easier to explain if matter
is simply spinning EMG forces. There's one difference.
An atom that isn't moving would be very stable. An atom being
elongated, and enlarged by movement would eventually become
unstable. The mass would not increase exponentially as the
atom approached the speed of light, it would collapse into
gamma radiation long before its mass would be big enough to
effect the universe.
Frequency of matter
If matter is simply EMG
radiation, then it would naturally have a frequency.
Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum might possibly
represent the frequencies of each element.
Each element has an absorption point, that may indicate
fusion occurring in the sun.
I can conceive of three
experiments that could prove this hypothesis. All of these
experiments are doable with existing laboratory tools
The first is simply to flood a vacuum
with energy of the frequency of Hydrogen. If the theory is
correct, then Hydrogen would actually appear. The main
problem is to get enough hydrogen to actually be able to
The second experiment would involve
using a supercollider. Push a proton beam as close to the
speed of light as the equipment allows. Hopefully the mass
can be pushed fast enough to actually cause loss of
stability of the EMG field and create gamma radiation.
The third experiment is actually a way
to cheap fusion. Consider a small space with enough
hydrogen atoms to bounce off one another. Now add EMG in
deuterium's frequency. Hydrogen Atoms instead of bouncing
off one another might fuse into deuterium instead. No
other frequency would work.
Fusion is what powers the
sun. Hydrogen atoms are combined to make deuterium,
deuterium into helium. Other elements are combined to create
larger elements. All stars create the elements of our
universe. They all start from Hydrogen. In fact the early
universe was mostly hydrogen. When enough hydrogen atoms
were drawn together by gravity, fusion started.
There are two ways known
today to create a fusion of Hydrogen into Helium. The
most obvious is the hydrogen bomb which uses an atomic bomb
to create the equivalent of conditions inside a sun. The
second is to use either magnetic or laser confinement of
hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium heated to a plasma. The
idea is to create the conditions in the sun where fusion
normally occurs A recent generator
suggests that for a few billion dollars it
might be possible to get enough energy to justify it's
cost.For decades such designs have been promised. It is very
difficult and dangerous to create solar conditions on Earth.
In the early universe of hydrogen, fusion
started with easier conditions to work with.
My model suggests a way to create
fusion in a simple way. consider the spinning EMG fields
that make up each atom. Normally when they come close to one
another they bounce off. However they are bathed in an em
field of the fused product, then they would simply fall into
the stable field of the new atom. . Thus If the
spinning electromagnetic field of several hydrogen atoms
were bathed in electromagnetic radiation at the frequency of
deuterium then they might simply fuse.
Confine hydrogen in a container with a
transparent opening. It should be hot enough, and compressed
enough so that hydrogen atoms come into contact. The tunable
laser should be set at the frequency of the Fraunhofer line
of deuterium. Remember that the beam will diverge as it
passes through the glass barrier, so will have to be
modified. The beam should have a minimum power of the
energy deuterium from E=mc2 after it passes through
the barrier. When conditions are right, there should be an
obvious surge of energy from the container. Calculate the
potential energy if all the hydrogen atoms were converted to
deuterium and take precautions.